Viet Nam after 35 years of Doi Moi
16:10 | 26/08/2020

VGP – The economic and political reforms under Doi Moi (Renovation period), launched in 1986, have spurred a rapid economic growth, transforming Viet Nam from one of the world’s poorest nations into a lower middle-income country.

The total export and import value in 2019 witnesses an increase of 172 times compared to the figure in 1986.

Comprehensive achievements over past 35 years 

According to the General Statistics Office, in 1986, Viet Nam’s total exports and imports stood at nearly US$3 billion and the trade deficit was estimated at US$1.5 billion. 

In 2019, the nation’s total trade value exceeded US$517 billion and the trade surplus reached US$11 billion. 

According to the report of the World Bank, between 2002 and 2018, GDP per capita increased by 2.7 times, reaching over US$2,700 in 2019, and more than 45 million people were lifted out of poverty. Poverty rates declined sharply from over 70% to below 6%. 

Viet Nam is experiencing rapid demographic and social change. Its population reached 97 million in 2018 (up from about 60 million in 1986) and is expected to expand to 120 million by 2050. 

Today, 70% of the population is under 35 years of age, with a life expectancy of 76, the highest among countries in the region with similar income levels.

Viet Nam ranks 48th out of 157 countries on the human capital index (HCI), second in ASEAN behind Singapore. The nation’s HCI is the highest among the middle-income countries, but there are some disparities within the country, especially for ethnic minorities.

In term of general education, Viet Nam received remarkably high scores in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2012 and 2015, where the performance of Vietnamese students exceeds that of many OECD countries.

Health outcomes have improved in tandem with rising living standards. From 1993 to 2017, the infant mortality rate decreased from 32.6 to 16.7 (per 1,000 live births). 

Between 1990 and 2016, life expectancy increased from 70.5 to 76.3 years, and is the highest in the region for countries with a similar income level.

Viet Nam’s universal health coverage index is at 73-higher than regional and global averages-with 87% of the population covered.

Over the past nearly 35 years, the provision of basic services has improved significantly. Households getting access to infrastructure services has increased dramatically. 

As of 2016, 99% of the population used electricity as their main source of lighting, up from just 14% in 1993. Access to clean water in rural areas has also improved, up from 17% in 1993 to 70% in 2016, while that figure for urban areas is above 95%.

Viet Nam now is one of the most dynamic emerging countries in the East Asia region, the WB stated. 

An active, responsible member of international community

Viet Nam has participated in and made contributions to crucial international organizations and forums and become a model for COVID-19 fight. 

In 2019, Viet Nam officially won the election to become a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) for 2020-2021 after getting 192 votes out of the 193 UN members. This is the second time Viet Nam secured a non-permanent seat in the UNSC, after the first time in 2008-2009.

Over the recent months of 2020, Viet Nam has carried out quick and effective strategies and measures to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic as well as promoted cooperation with other nations and international organizations in the COVID-19 fight. 

During the phone call between Party General Secretary, State President Nguyen Phu Trong and Russian President Vladimir Putin in early June, the Russian President spoke highly of Viet Nam’s successful control of COVID-19 and expressed thanks to Viet Nam for supporting Russia in this fight. 

In the phone call between Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc and U.S. President Donald Trump, the U.S. side highly appraised Viet Nam’s capacity to cope with the pandemic, thanking the nation to provide medical equipment and face masks as gifts for the U.S. 

Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte highly valued the leading role of Viet Nam as the Chair of ASEAN 2020 in line with the spirit of the theme “Cohesive and Responsive”. 

He also welcomed efforts and initiatives of Viet Nam to boost cooperation between ASEAN nations and between ASEAN and other partners in the pandemic prevention, including the initiative of establishing the COVID-19 ASEAN Response Fund.

Viet Nam has affirmed its role as an active and responsible member of the international community./. 

By Thuy Dung 

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